Sand and fiberglass the inside | decks | rails | joinerworks | stembands
Sand and fiberglass the inside
The inside is treated the same way as the outside. Check the width of the hull before laminating. Adjust if needed - nylon straps around the hull or wooden sticks between the sheers. Leave them in place until the epoxy is cured. When the hull layup is assymetric (glassfiber on one side only) there is a considerable risk of the hull going out of shape. Changes in temperature and/or humidity may cause dimensional changes. Therefore do the inside as soon as the outside is finished. This is not a good time to take a break. The resulting mismatch may be hard to correct in a later stage. If a pause is nescessary, leave the molds in place and secure the hull to them with nylon webbing straps around the hull at each mold.
Glue the breasthook blanks: cut the parts from a nice looking board, two diagonal pieces and a narrow trim piece (used to geta better fiber direction at the joints). Take the dimensions from the plans. Glue them together as shown. The middle strip can be a contrasting wood, fx mahogany. The breasthook is a good place to show off a little creativity. Plane the deck blanks to fit tightly to the sheers and stems. Take your time on the fit - the decks are visually prominent parts of a canoe. Glue the decks in place when you are satisfied.
Rails (outwales and inwales):
Mark the sheers for seats, decks and crossbeam(-s). Glue spacer blocks along the insides of the sheer. These blocks may be fir or hardwood, from 20x10mm stock and approx 70-80 mm long, spaced evenly (approx 100 mm distance) between the bow and stern, as shown. Glue and secure with spring clamps. Make sure there is a block where you will attach the crossmembers - seats or crossbeam. Glue the inwale, approx 20x22 mm, to the spacer blocks and fit them to the breasthooks fore and aft. A lot of spring clamps are needed - or some creativity! Thin nails are is an alternative, as are spreader poles between the rails.
The main purpose of the spacers is to allow water and dirt to drain from the inside of the canoe when turned upside down. They also reduce unnecessary weight and provide handy places to tie things on to. Glue the outwales (20x22 mm) to the hull. Plane or sand the upper edge of the entire sheer even and slightly rounded. Trim the outwale down to approx 8 mm thickness at the stems, starting from half a meter from the stems. Round all inwale edges over: best with a router, otherwisw a plane and sandpaper have to do.
Cut the cross beam or beams according to the plans, using approximately 25x75 mm stock (ash or other hard wood. If you prefer fir or spruce, increase the dimensions slightly). If you plan to portage your canoe singlehandedly you may shape the crossbeam as an old fashioned carrying yoke, as was frequently done on most classical canoes hundred years ago. The corssbeam is fastened to the inwale from below - two 1 1/4" #8 silicon-bronze screws each side. Do not fasten the beam permanently until the inside is finished.
The seat frameworks are made of 25x40 mm ash (or a little sturdier: 30x40 mm, if you choose spruce or fir). The seats can then be nylon webbing, rattan, braided hemp or syntethic rope, or a piece of plywood. The seats are hung from the gunwales using large countersunk bolts, passing through wooden spacers so that the bottom of the seats is approximately 25 cm over the canoe's bottom. Do not fasten the seats until the inside is finished.
Stembands are usually 3/8" half-oval brass profiles attached with countersunk 1/2" #4 flathead brass screws. Handle the stemband with care after it has been machined - it is fragile at the holes. The stembands protect the stems and the extreme parts of the keel (from approximately half a meter under the stem and stern) and ends just below the top of the stems - or protrude above, bent over to form an "eyebolt" for a towing line. Prepare the stembands but do not fasten them until the outside is finished.